Applicability of Goethite/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites to Remove Lead from Wastewater
Lead ion in drinking water is one of the most dangerous metals. It affects several systems, such as the nervous, gastrointestinal, reproductive, renal, and cardiovascular systems. Adsorption process is used as a technology that can solve this problem through suitable composites. The adsorption of lead (Pb(II)) on graphene oxide (GO) and on two goethite (&alpha;-FeOOH)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites (composite 1: 0.10 g GO: 22.22 g &alpha;-FeOOH and composite 2: 0.10 g GO: 5.56 g &alpha;-FeOOH), in aqueous medium, was studied. The GO was synthesized from a commercial pencil lead. Composites 1 and 2 were prepared from GO and ferrous sulfate. The GO and both composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The adsorption capacity of Pb(II) on the GO and both composites was evaluated through adsorption isotherms. Composite 1 presented a significant agglomeration of &alpha;-FeOOH nanorods on the reduced graphene oxide layers. Meanwhile, composite 2 exhibited a more uniform distribution of nanorods. The adsorption of Pb(II) on the three adsorbents fits the Langmuir isotherm, with an adsorption capacity of 277.78 mg/g for composite 2200 mg/g for GO and 138.89 mg/g for composite 1. Composite 2 emerged as a highly efficient alternative to purify water contaminated with Pb(II).