Efficient arsenic(V) removal from contaminated water using natural clay and clay composite adsorbents
The natural clay is an abundant, accessible, and low-cost material that has the potential for use in the water and wastewater industry. In this paper, Iranian natural clay and clay/Fe-Mn composite were used to remove toxic arsenic from the liquid environment. The natural clay and clay/Fe-Mn composite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The effects of parameters (initial pH, temperature, sorption dose, and contact time) on the efficiency and behavior of the arsenic(V) adsorption process were studied. Freundlich (R2 = 0.945 and 0.989), Langmuir (R2 = 0.922 and 0.931), modified Langmuir (R2 = 0.921 and 0.929), and Dubinin?Radushkevich (R2 = 0.706 and 0.723) models were fitted to evaluate the equilibrium data of arsenic(V) adsorption process by natural clay and clay/Fe-Mn composite, respectively. The Langmuir adsorption capacity of arsenic(V) by the natural clay and clay/Fe-Mn composite was determined to be 86.86 mg/g and 120.70 mg/g, respectively. The arsenic(V) adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model. Negative values of ?G? and ?H? showed that the arsenic(V) sorption by the studied materials is thermodynamically spontaneous and exothermic. According to the findings, the natural clay and clay/Fe-Mn are suitable and recyclable sorbents for arsenic(V) adsorption from aqueous solutions. Also, the composite of clay with iron and manganese can improve the efficiency of clay in the removal of arsenic.